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Abzu
(Sumerian) The Sumerians believed that the oceans on the surface of the world were paralled by hidden, cthonic seas located in vast chambers deep within the earth. Abzu is the primordial Lord of these Inner Waters. His name is the root behind the modern word &...
Adad
(Akkadian/Babylonian) The later, Babylonian version of the Sumerian Iskur....
Amurru
(Akkadian) The later version of the Sumerian Martu....
An
(Sumerian) A primordial sky-god, regarded as the creator of the world and progenitor or ancestor of all the Gods who followed Him. His attributes are obscure and his rulership of the heavens is vague and ill-defined; He seems to have been a distant figure...
Ansar
(Sumerian) A primordial being, child of Lahmu, and father of An....
Antu
(Babylonian) The Babylonian version of An....
Apsu
(Akkadian/Babylonian) The later, Babylonian version of the Sumerian Abzu. According to the Babylonians, Apsu, a primordial dragon, was slain by Ea, who subsequently set up His home within Apsu's carcase....
Asarlubi
(Sumerian) Son of Enki (I), and a master of magick and sorcery....
Assur
(Assyrian) Tutelary God of the Assyrian people; Lord of the Assyrian pantheon, guide and defender of the Assyrian nation.During the era of Assyrian ascendency, He replaced Marduk as premier divinity....
Buriash
(Kassite) Apparently a God of storm and weather, and as such equated by Mesopotamian people with Iskur. Cf. the Hellenic Boreas....
Dagan
(Akkadian/Babylonian) An agrarian deity, responsible for the invention of the plow, and Lord of the grain harvest. His worship was extensive in the Levant; within Mesopotamia he was relatively minor....
Dumuzi
(Sumerian) Child of Duttur, Lord of shepherds and the flocks, and eternal adversary to Enkimdu. He is regarded as both divinity and royal ancestor in several Mesopotamian city-states, most notably Uruk, where he is listed as an earlier predescessor to the...
Duttur
(Sumerian) The sheep Goddess, and Patroness of the flocks. She is the mother of both Dumuzi and Gestinanna....
Ea
(Akkadian/Babylonian) The later version of Enki (I). His functions and attributes closely parallel the earlier divinity, although the tale of His battle against Apsu and subsequent claim upon the Inner Seas is expanded....
Enbilulu
(Sumerian) The River God, divine master of the Tigris-Euphrates watershed system....
Enki
(Sumerian) Lord of the underworld seas which parallel the surface oceans, and hence master of artisanship, secret craft, magick, and inner wisdom. He seems to have been involved in ordering and regulating all the myriad functionings of the human (ie....
Enki and Ninki
(Sumerian) A separate figure from Enki of the underworld seas, this male and female pair were "Lord and Lady Earth", Patrons of the Upper world and, in at least one tradition, the parents of Enlil....
Enkimdu
(Sumerian) Patron and Lord of dikes, canals, and furrows; in effect, irrigation and sedentary farming in general. He is the eternal adversary to Dumuzi....
Enlil
(Sumerian) A central figure in the mythos, child by one tradition of An, by another of Enki (II) and father to many divinities, including Iskur, Inanna, Nergal, and Utu among others. His vitality and majesty is of such strength that it is unedurable to all,...
Ereskigal
(Sumerian) Queen of the Underworld, a cthonic Goddess whose realm was the uttermost depths, below the Inner Sea of Abzu. She was recognized as Guardian and Patroness of the Dark City....
Gestinanna
(Sumerian) An oracular Goddess, one who is associated with the interpretation of dreams, and also has widespread shepherding connections. She is the loyal sister of Dumuzi, and hides him by various strategems when he is sought by demons of the underworld....
Gibil
(Sumerian) Divine Lord of fire, and personification of fire in all it's aspects, both harmful and beneficial....
Gula
(Sumerian) A healer and patroness of medicine; She is also something of a tutelary Goddess of the city-state of Isin. Unsurprisingly for her vocation, She is almost always accompanied by a dog....
Harbe
(Kassite) A primary God of the Kassite people, equated with Anu or Enlil....
Humban
(Elamite) A sky God, one who dwells in the heavens, and (probably) personifies masculine energy. He very likely is connected in some way to Humbaba, the giant guarding the cedars of Lebanon from Gilgamesh....
Inanna
(Sumerian) "Lady of the Thousand Offices", She is the primary female Deity of Her people, and in some ways the focus of the entire pantheon. Her epithet refers to the fact that She is Patroness and divine Guide to a myriad different functions and...
Inzak
(Dilmun) Regarded by non-Dilmunites as the supreme deity of Dilmun, but on the island itself He seems to have been accounted as Lord and Patron of the desert tribes dwelling nearby....
Ishhara
(Akkadian/Babylonian) A Goddess of love, and consort of Dagan in at least one tradition. (Hurrian) A Goddess of the underworld, not much else remains to Her memory....
Ishtar
(Akkadian/Babylonian) The later equivalent to Inanna, and like Her earlier manifestation one of the most important figures in the pantheon. Like Inanna, She is Lady of many offices and functions, especially love, sexuality, fertility, and healing....
Iskur
(Sumerian) The chief weather deity, Lord of storms and tempests; He-Who-Wields-The-Lightning. He also has a benificent aspect as the bringer of cleansing and fructifying rain. He was patron of flowing water generally, and that could imply either living...
Isum
(Sumerian) Guardian and protector from night-time terrors, divine messenger, and benign influence within the underworld, He was a God of enduring popularity....
Jezebel
Jezebel was a Phoenician princess and the daughter of Ethbaal, the king of Baal-worshipping Sidonians. Jezebel literally means
Ki
(Sumerian) A primordial being representing Earth in some traditions, wife of An in one version of the tales surrounding the beginnings; thus, the beginning times symbolized by the marriage of Heaven and Earth....
Kisar
(Sumerian) A primordial being, child of Lahmu, and mother of An....
Lahamu
(Sumerian) A primordial being, possibly a child of Abzu and Tiamat, and mother of Ansar....
Lilu, Lilitu, and Ardat-Lili
(Sumerian) Not divinities as such, this trio of closely related demons inhabited the desert wastes, and functioned largely in terms of sexual and fertility aberation. Lilu and Lilitu were male and female equivalents of each other, and were regarded as...
Mamu
(Sumerian) An oracular divinity of dreams and visions, child of Utu, and of ambiguous or shifting gender....
Marduk
(Babylonian) Originally the Patron and tutelary deity of the city of Babylon, Marduk's power and influence grew until He was regarded as supreme among all the Gods and Goddesses. His personal attributes were as Lord of magick, wisdom, and regal authority. His...
Martu
(Sumerian) Child of An by Ninhursaga, He was spoken of as the leveler of cities and destroyer of peoples. He was the personification of the nomad barbarians who swarmed into Mesopotamia from very early times. His name was the same as the epithet used to...
Meskilak
(Dilmun) Seemingly the patroness of the city of Dilmun proper, and probably the mother of Inzak.She seems to have been a local variant on the mainland Ninhursaga....
Mullisu
(Assyrian) The Assyrian version of Ninlil, in which mythos She is the wife of Assur, not Enlil....
Nabu
(Babylonian) Divine Patron of scribes, and holding authority over writing and knowledge. He forms with Ea and Marduk a triplicity of Wisdom deities, and His worship persisted among Mesopotamian communities for a very long time. His cult is still recognizable...
Nahhunte
(Elamite) A solar deity, one concerned with justice and the law as well....
Nammu
(Sumerian) A primordial being. In some traditions, the mother of An and Ki (Heaven and Earth), and a personification or Aspect of Abzu....
Nanna-Suen
(Sumerian) The moon-God, child of Enlil and Ninlil, husband of Ningal, and in at least one tradition the father of Utu and Inanna....
Nanse
(Sumerian) Tutelary Goddess of the city-state of Lagash, Shewas an oracular divinity with the power to interpret dreams and omens. She also held a position as protectress of the common-folk, related to which She was invoked as an overseer of fair and accurate...
Nergal
(Sumerian) Lord of the Underworld, usually regarded as a child of Enlil and Ninlil, and consort to Ereskigal. Master of the Dark City, He has warlike associations, and is also connected to fevers and sudden diseases, especially the plague. His cult continued...
Ningal
(Sumerian) Wife of Nanna-Suen, and mother of Utu....
Ninhursaga
(Sumerian) A Mother-Goddess, one of several in Sumerian mythology. She is regarded as the mother of many divinities by Enlil, who further extends His line by incestuous unions with their daughters. Her name means "Lady of the Mountains."...
Ninlil
(Sumerian) Wife of Enlil, and mother to many of His children....
Ninurta
(Sumerian) A warrior deity, involved with armies, weaponry, and the suppression of revolt. He has another nature as well, though, that of an agrarian deity devoted to tillage of the soil and teaching the arts of the farm....
Pazuzu
(Babylonian) A demon of somewhat ambiguous malevolence: He was feared for his greed and strength, but was also recognized as a legitimate protection against pestilence. He has re-emerged in the modern world as the central evil force in the novel and movie &quo...
Pienenkir
(Elamite) A Goddess of fertility, nurturance, and motherhood....
Qingu
(Babylonian) A created entity, formed by Tiamat to be the general of Her divine forces in the war between Her and Marduk. Qingu was given the Tablet of Destinies as His primary weapon, but He and His forces were routed by Marduk. Executed by Marduk afterward,...
Samas
(Akkadian) A later version of Utu, the sun God. In this version, He is the child of Anu....
Sin
(Akkadian/Babylonian) The later-era version of Nanna-Suen, the moon God....
Suriash
(Kassite) Possible a solar divinity, similar in many respects to Utu....
Tesup
(Hurrian) The equivalent, in this people's mythology, to the weather Gods Iskur and Buriash....
Tiamat
(Sumerian) A primordial entity. At the beginning of creation there were but two entities, Abzu and Tiamat, representing respectively the freshwater underworld sea and the saltwater surface ocean. Between them, many of the earliest entities were created,...
Uttu
(Sumerian) Divine Patroness of the weaving arts and, completely unsurprisingly, closely associated with spiders....
Utu
(Sumerian) The sun-God, son of Nanna-Suen, and twin brother of Inanna. He represents all the primary solar virtues, light, warmth, and the blessed energy of growth in crops....

Mesopotamian is described in multiple online sources, as addition to our editors' articles, see section below for printable documents, books and related discussion.

Suggested Pdf Resources

MESOPOTAMIAN DIRECTORY 2011
languages of greater Mesopotamia (including Syria east of the Upper Euphrates, the. Elamite plains, and regions using a standard cuneiform script).
The Mesopotamian Soul of Western Culture
The Mesopotamian Soul of Western Culture. SIMO PARPOLA. Institute for Asian and African Studies, University of Helsinki.
Lesson 1 Mesopotamian Empires
1. World History: Ancient Civilizations. Chapter 4: Early Empires.
WOMEN IN ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA: THE MOTHERS OF
The cultures of the Ancient Mesopotamian societies of Sumer, Babylon, and Assyria perspectives of Ancient Mesopotamia can be research and studied.
The Mesopotamian Marshlands: Demise of an Ecosystem
3. UNEP/DEWA/TR.01-3.

Suggested News Resources

Mesopotamia fascinates author
By Bill Henry Dorothy McIntosh was deep into research for her first novel, studying the history and culture of ancient Mesopotamia. As she read about the demise of an ancient capital, similar images came on TV from modern Iraq.
Temple of the 'Bride of the Desert'
By CHRISTIAN C. SAHNER Originally built in worship of Bel, a Mesopotamian god of the sky, the temple in subsequent centuries also served as a Byzantine church and later a mosque.
Waiting Hours to See the McQueen Exhibit, in a Line Not Unlike a Runway
“Is There Life Out There?” Asks Curtis Hatch, author of the new novel “When
His translation and hypotheses about the Sumerian and Mesopotamian iconography and symbology point to ancient visits to Earth by extraterrestrial beings. Mainstream scientists and academics do not accept his work.
How Britain and France redrew the map of the Middle East to satisfy their own

Suggested Web Resources

Mesopotamia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mesopotamian religion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ancient Mesopotamia for Kids - Sumer, Babylon, Assyria
Ancient Mesopotamia - Sumer, Babylon, Assyria. Home For Teachers For Kids Free Stories Ancient Mesopotamia for Kids.
Mesopotamia - The British Museum
Interactive guide to Assyria, Babylonia and Sumer along with information on geography, time, writing, gods and goddesses.
Mesopotamia - The British Museum
British Museum.

Great care has been taken to prepare the information on this page. Elements of the content come from factual and lexical knowledge databases, realmagick.com library and third-party sources. We appreciate your suggestions and comments on further improvements of the site.

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