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Amun/Imen
Amon, Amun, Imen, Primeval Creator God mentioned in the Pyramid Texts together with his wife Amanuet. Often called "The Hidden One" and associated with the invisible wind. Another name was "He who abides in all things", the ba of all...
Amunhotep/Son-of-Hapu
Amunhotep-son-of-Hapu was a courtier, who was employed as a royal scribe and "overseer of all the work of the king" in the reign of Amunhotep III (Dynasty XVIII). Later, in the Ptolemaic period, he was deified on account of his reputation for wisdom....
Anat
A Syrian deity introduced into Egypt in the Middle Kingdom. She was originally a deity of war, depicted with shield, axe and lance. Despite this she was called 'Mother of the gods' and 'Mistress of the sky'. She was regarded as protectress of the king in...
Anubis/Inpew
Anubis/Inpew/Yinepu/Anpu, "Lord of the Hallowed Land", meaning the necropolis. Jackal or dog headed god protecting the deceased. Known since Predydnastic times and linked to the name Khenty Amentiu, "Foremost of the Westerners". He was...
Anukis/Anuket
Her name means "Embracing Lady", she was probably of Nubian origin and worshipped in the 1st cataract area. The name of Anuket has been found together with Satis on a great number of inscriptions from quarry expeditions in that area. In later times...
Apis
Originally a fertility symbol, he became the sacred bull, or the 'Ba' of the creator god Ptah at the cult center of Memphis. The Apis was linked to Pharaoh as the divine manifestation of a god and the bulls became important enough to have a grand burial at...
Aten/Iten
The Sun disc itself, first as a heavenly body, later personified as Re. During the Amarna period exalted by Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV) to be the only god in existence, something which had been unheard of in Egyptian religion. Aten was then depicted as a sundisc...
Atum/Tem
The Creator God of the Ennead of Heliopolis, who rose out of the Primeval Waters by self-creation. In the Pyramid Texts he is said to be the Primeval Mound from where he created the structured universe. Called "He Who came into being of Himself", or...
Banebdjedet
Local ram deity of Djedet (Mendes), meaning 'the spirit, the lord of Djedet'. He incorporated the essence of the world in four forms or 'ba' spirits, corresponding to the fours first rulers of the world; Ra, Shu, Geb and Osiris. At Mendes his spouse was the...
Bast
Cat-headed goddess who in early times also connected to Sekhmet, Tefnut, Atum (her father) and Mut. Via Mut she is also connected to Amun and in the Old Kingdom she is found depicted together with Het-Hert. She did not become associated with the cat until ca...
Bat
Primeval deity from the 7th Upper Egyptian Nome, depicted on the Narmer Palette (ca 3100) with cow's horns and two faces. In the New Kingdom assimilated to Hathor. As a very primeval deity, Bat had no temples or priesthood of her own....
Bes
Bes was a dwarf-god, grotesque in appearance, but benign in nature. He was depicted wearing a plumed crown, was normally bearded with his broad face surrounded by a lion's mane and ears, and with his tongue protruding in a playfully aggressive manner. His...
Geb/Seb
As one of the Heliopolitan Ennead, Geb is a cosmic deity and the eldest child of Shu. The union of Geb with his twin sister Nut produced the deities of the myth of Isis, Osiris, Set and Horus. As earth-god and presiding judge of the divine tribunal of the...
Hapy/Hapi
The great god of the Nile was called Hapi. In sacred art, he was depicted as a man, somewhat overweight to symbolize abundance, and with female breasts to symbolize the river’s fertile properties. He is an ancient god, to the Egyptians as well as modern man,...
Hat-Mehit
A local fish-goddess from the Delta city of Mendes, where the ram-headed BaNebDjedet was the main god. Hat-Mehit was usually depicted in the form of a woman with a fish above her head. No festivals are known from history....
Hathor/Het-Hert
Meaning "the House of Horus". In early times seen as the sky-goddess and mother of Horus, in the New Kingdom she was merged with Isis to become the same deity. Already in the Old Kingdom her cult center seems to have been in Dendera. During the...
Heka
There are two aspects of this concept. The first one is the name of the deity Heka. The other one is the act of using heka. Heka the deity: One of the three creative powers of the Sungod Ra, which were neccessary for Creation to come about. Thus Heka was the...
Heket/Heqet
Heket - a water deity in the form of a frog or a frog-headed woman. She made her debut into the Egyptian pantheon in pyramid inscriptions, in a magical text destined to allow the king to ascend into the sky. Later she became connected with birth, in a Middle...
Horus/Her
The falcon, soaring with outstretched wings was already in Predynastic times seen as the sky-god, his eyes were called the sun and the moon. The sky, the sun and the falcon were at this time equaled with the king and out of this came the symbol of the winged...
Hu
Personification of the sound of the creative speech, the principle of Divine Utterance, which together with Heka (divine power) and Sia (divine omniscience) were necessary for the King´s creative powers during the Old Kingdom. They are seen together with the...
Imhotep/Imouthes
Imhotep was a high courtier under King Djoser (Dynasty III), who was given the supreme privilege of having his name carved alongside that of Pharaoh himself. He held the offices of vizier and master sculptor. The Egyptian priest Manetho stated that he was the...
Isis and her son Horus
We are now in the sign of Cancer, which has quite a few things to do with the concept of the Mother. But to be sure, without the child there is no mother, so the story is just as much about the relationship between the two. In our lives, there is probably no...
Isis/Aset
ISIS and ASET are really two different deities. When the worship of Isis rose, Aset had already been forgotten for hundreds of years, at this time only a small group of priests still knew how to read the hieroglyphs of the temple walls. Isis was more a Roman...
Khepri
'He who is coming into being of himself'. Creator god in the form of a beetle or scarab, mentioned as far back as the 5th Dynasty (ca 2494-2345 BC) in the Pyramid Texts. The ancient Egyptians watched the scarab pushing his dung ball in front of him, and drew...
Khnum/Khenmew
Worshipped in the form of a ram in early New Kingdom, later as a man with a ram's head. At Elephantine he was guardian of the source of the Nile and thought to cause the inundation. He and his consort Satis and Anuket, their divine child, made up the...
Khonsu/Khensew
Khonsu, "the Traveller", referring to the moon wandering across the sky. Divine child of Amun and Mut, one of the Theban Triad. Depicted as a young boy in the form of a mummy, wearing the side-lock of youth and with the moon crescent above his head....
Ma'at/Maae't
The personification of the basic laws of all existence; the concept of justice, truth, order and balance, without which life is impossible. She is not really a goddess/netjer but rather the principle of these factors. The Egyptians had no difficulties in...
Mafdet
'The runner', an early, violent deity in panther form, seen as a manifestation of judicial authority. A personification of the executional tool. She was one of the protective powers in the king's suite. Her claws was likened to the barbs of the king's harpoon,...
Mehet-Weret
'The Great Flood'. Goddess of the primeval flood out of which life emerged and the sun god appeared. She was often depicted as a great cow with the sun disc between her horns, as such she was linked to Hathor and called the mother of Re. There was no cult...
Meretseger/Meresger
"She who loves silence" - local goddess of the Valley of the Kings on the Western shore of the Nile at Thebes. She was worshipped by the workmen in the necropolis especially in the form of the mountain peak known as "Lady of the Peak" that...
Meskhenet
A goddess of birth, personification of one of the 'birthing bricks' upon which ancient women used to squat when giving birth. She is often shown as either a woman with a brick as a head, or as a brick with a woman's head. Sometimes she is also shown fully...
Min/Menew
His earliest form was a fetish resembling a barbed arrow. Later the written form of his name was recognizable in the sign of the ninth nome of Upper Egypt. Min developed from a fertility god for animals to a god of vegetation. Among his attributes were a bed...
Montu/Mentjew
Montu was the falconheaded god of war. From the beginning he was worshipped at Hermonthis, but in the Eleventh Dynasty he was brought to Thebes, where he soon was overtaken by Amun as the royal deity. Montu was depicted with a falcon´s head crowned with the...
Mormyrus
Fishes were often regarded as unclean animals which were forbidden as offerings and food to kings, gods and the priesthood. When the cult of Osiris became popular, the fish was identified with Seth, as, according to Plutharch people believed that the fish...
Mut/Mewet
Mut is the mother of Khonsu and wife of Amun at Thebes. She can be traced back to the Middle Kingdom, but was probably worshipped earlier. She was depicted as a woman with a vulture skin on her head, together with the crown of Upper Egypt. Mut became the Eye...
Nathor
This Goddess replica is a composite of several images found scattered from Libya to Egypt Dated in the predynastic period BCE, they also appear on cave wall paintings from Paleolithic Algeria. The culture that produced Her was a sophisticated group of people...
Nebethetepet
A Helipolitan deity, 'Mistress of offering' or 'Mistress of the Vulva', a manifestation of Hathor and sometimes linked to the Creator god Atum as his female creative counterpart. Also sometimes referred to as a mother goddess. There was no cult especially for...
Nefertum/Nefer-tem
The god of fragrance, his form was "the Divine Lotus". When shown as human, he wore a lotus on his head, often with two vertical plumes. He was also depicted with a lion's head, thus showing his solar symbolism, the sun being reborn each day like...
Neith/Net
Nit (Gr: Neith) Local goddess of Zau (Gr: Sais), known as early as the Predynastic and Early Dynastic Period when her influence probably was at its height. Earliest traces are her hieroglyph (crossed arrows on a shield) on a pole in front of the reed shrines...
Nekhbet
From the beginning a local goddess in El Kab (Nekheb), later one of the two goddesses of Upper and Lower Egypt. She and the goddess Ouadjet represented the symbolical two halves of Egypt. Their forms showed Nekhbet as a vulture and Ouadjet as a snake....
Nephtys/Nebet-Hewet
Nebt-Het (Gr: Nephtys) meaning "Mistress of the House", which is a title rather than a name, and the same word as her hieroglyphic sign shown above her head. Also called "Friend of the Dead". Daughter to Geb and Nut of the Heliopolitan...
Nun/Pesdjet
Nun was the god who personified the primeval waters, the chaos which existed before there was shape and form, the dark liquid mass out of which there appeared the creator-god. Nun is regarded as having no surface, stretching into infinity. Not subject to...
Nut/Newet
Nut, belonging to the Heliopolitan Ennead was the mistress of all heavenly bodies and was thought to be reaching across the sky from horizon to horizon, touching them with her hands and feet. She was seen as the mother of Re, who swallowed him up every...
Onuris/Anhur
'He who brings the distant (goddess). Ancient god of hunting, origin: This is Upper Egypt. Depicted in bearded, human form and with four feathers on his head, carrying a spear aloft from one or both hands. He resides in the desert at the edge of the world...
Osiris/Wesir
Osiris, Wesir, Ausar, Usir, meaning "place of the eye". Also Wennefer which means "the eternally good being" or "the perfect one". He has been called "Lord of the Afterworld", "Judge of the Blessed Dead", "...
Path/Peteh
Ptah, Peteh, 'South of His Wall', 'The Ancient One', worshipped in Mennefer (Gr: Memphis) already in the early dynastic period, probably at first as the local patron of craftsmanship, his High Priest in Mennefer was titled 'Greatest of the controllers of...
Ra/Ra'
Ra, or Re, originally meaning the heavenly body itself. An early cult center existed at Heliopolis. From Herakhty, which he joined, Ra adopted the falcon head and when he later also coalesced with Atum, Re-Atum became a manifestation of the setting sun. In...
Renenutet/Renenet
"Lady of the fertile land" and "lady of granaries", a deity of fertility and harvest but she was also a protector of linen, especially bandages, children and their nourishment. Mother of the grain god Nepri. She also gave each child a...
Reshef/Reshpu
A Syrian war and thunder god, always depicted with raised weapons, wearing the White Crown of Upper Egypt with a streamer flowing from the top. At the base of the crown is either a complete head of a gazelle or just the horns. In the Pyramid Texts mentioned...
Satis
Satis, "The Lady of Elephantine" and "She of Sehel (the island)" the giver of water for purification of the deceased, and associated with the inundation. Together with Anuket she was the protectress of the waters of the Nile in the...
Sekhmet
Sekhmet, her consort Ptah and their son Nefertem made up the Memphite Triad. Her name meant "the mighty one" and she was associated with war and appropriate retaliation and was said to have an awesome appeareance, her weapons being arrows 'with...
Sekhmet
Goddess of war and battles, consort of Ptah. Hathor took Sekhmet's shape when she made war on men. Sekhmet is usually portrayed as a woman with the head of a lioness, sometimes brandishing a knife in an upraised hand. Her name means the powerful. Sekhmet's...
Selket/Serqet
Her name means 'She who causes to breathe' and refers to her power of protecting from, or curing poisonous stings of scorpions and serpents. The reason for this might lie in the fact that those who have been bitten tend to breathe too fast and too shallow...
Seshat
Goddess of writing and measurer of time, referred to as "she who is foremost in the house of books". She measured time and helped Pharaoh with laying out the ground plan of a new temple with a measuring cord, therefore she was also the "Lady of...
Seth
Set, Seth, Sutek, the second son of Geb and Nut, depicted as either an animal with four legs, a curving snout, long ears and an erect tail, or as a human with an animal´s head. Which kind of animal this was has been subject to much debate. His skin was white...
Shu
Shu is one of the Heliopolitan Ennead. He is the god of sunlight and air, first recorded in the Old Kingdom, where he was responsible for bringing Ra and the king to life every day. Over a millenium later, Akenaten was to continue this tradition, by...
Sia
Personification of Divine Knowledge or Omniscience, which together with Heka (divine power) and Hu, personification of Divine Utterance, were neccessary for the King´s creative powers during the Old Kingdom. They are seen together with the falcon-headed...
Sobek/Sebek
Sobek, Sebek, or (Gr:)Suchos, meaning crocodile. Lord of stretches of water and of fishes. There are several deities for water, Sobek being the most important. Son of Neith and Osiris or of Neith and Seth. His cult rose in the Twelfth Dynasty in the Fayum...
Sokar/Sokher
Sokar, probably an earth and fertility god in early times. Later he developed into a mortuary deity, his cult center being near the necropolis of Mennefer (Memphis). He was depicted as a falcon headed human, showing his association to the king, and in the...
Sopdet/Sothis
Sothis was the goddess personifying the dog-star Sirius, the bright appearance of which in the July dawn sky announced the annual flooding of the Nile. The Egyptian name of the goddess was "Sopdet", from which came the Greek Sothis, normally used in...
Taweret/Taurt
Hippopotamus goddess, protector of women during childbirth, since Archaic times shown standing upright with human arms and legs, a wig of straight hair and a crocodile's back and tail. She carried a torch, a sa (a sign of magical protection) attribute, and...
Tefnut/Tefnet
Tefnut, meaning moisture like rain, dew and clouds, was according to myth created by the primeval god Atum of the Ennead in Heliopolis together with her brother Shu, air. With them duality started and the sexual cycle was begun. When Atum later was...
Thoth/Djehuty
Thoth, (Djehuty), the god who is said to have invented writing, the measuring of time, music, magic, art, medicine, mathematics and astronomy. In early times shown as an ibis, the sign of the 15th Lower Egyptian nome, so he might have originated there. His...
Uadjet/Wadjyet
Uadjet, Wadjet, Uajyt or Edjo, goddess of Buto, "the papyrus-colored one", meaning "the green one", which was a general name for the cobra, the uraeus, her sacred animal. Later she was connected to the ichneumon. In one Pyramid Text it is...
Wenut
Wenut, "the Swift One" ancient minor deity from the predynastic days, from the beginning shown in snake form but probably in the Graeco-Roman period represented as a hare. Main center of worship: Khmun /Hermopolis, 19th Nome, Upper Egypt...
Wepwawet/Wepawawet
Local deity of Lycopolis, depicted as a jackal or a wolf or with a jackal head, often dressed as a soldier and carrying his weapons. His name means "opener of the way" and is believed to have a connection with going out into battle. His attributes...
Werethekau
'She who is rich in magic' or 'Great in magic'. A name used for various goddesses, especially Aset and Sekhmet, but she is also a deity in her own right, depicted as a snake or a woman with a lioness head. She was also considered the divine nurse of the king...

Egyptian is described in multiple online sources, as addition to our editors' articles, see section below for printable documents, books and related discussion.

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