# Hyperspace Reality

Saul-Paul Sirag is a theoretical physicist whose theories encompass the age and size of the universe as well as the number and nature of all subatomic particles.

Brought to you by William James

*Despite the fact that the 'new' physics,
a godchild of the Einsteinian revolution has taught us that the Universe
we perceive is a mere shadow of a vastly more unpredictable one, most of
us still view the world in a distinctly materialistic way. A world where
mind and matter exist independently, neatly bordered by a strong and infinite
boundary.*

D. Scott Rogo and Jeffrey Mishlove

(1979: the 100th anniversary of Einstein's

birth)

Original manuscript of *Earth's Ambassador.*

*The intelligence raising drug, NEURO,
began to change things a bit after it appeared in 1988. People's fantasies
gradually became more sophisticated and philosophical, and their reality-tunnels
accordingly adapted. With the publication of Sirag's General Field Theory
in 1993, the smarter primates immediately realized what was really occurring
on their planet and throughout the cosmos*.

Robert Anton Wilson (1981)

p. 248 of *Schroedinger's Cat II: The
Trick Top Hat.*

The first quote is from the present, non-fiction

book about Ted Owens, whose purported contacts with Space Intelligences

sound like the wildest science-fiction. The second quote is from a novel,

whose very structure incorporates the many-worlds model of quantum mechanics.

It is an amusing synchronicity that the paper "Consciousness: a Hyperspace

View" (which could indeed be described as Sirag's General Field Theory)

was published in 1993, as a 39-page appendix to the Second Edition of Jeffrey

Mishlove's book *Roots of Consciousness,.*

A preliminary version of this paper was

presented on September 28, 1987 at the University of California at Berkeley,

in a meeting sponsored by the California Society for Psychical Study. Jeffrey

Mishlove, who was the president that year, persuaded me to give that talk:

"The Cosmology of Consciousness."

Ted Owens, who died in 1987, the year in

which that paper was given, always referred to the Space intelligences

(SIs) as coming from a higher dimensional realm and not from some distant

planet. Whether Ted knew it or not, all during his lifetime (1920-1987),

the world of physics underwent radical changes in its view of reality,

that I will review here. These changes lend support to Owens' claims and

his vision:

**A Brief History of Hyperspace**

Albert Einstein in 1915 introduced the

idea that gravity is to be explained as the warping of four-dimensional

(4-d) spacetime. Whatever doubts physicists had - and there were many -

about the reality of the 4-dimensionality of spacetime (as a unified geometrical

whole which could be warped) were erased by the dramatic verification of

Einstein's gravity theory (called the General Theory of Relativity) in

1919, when a group of British astronomers led by Arthur Eddington measured

the bending of starlight grazing the sun during a solar eclipse. That same

year, Theodore Kaluza, a Polish physicist, came up with the idea that not

only the Einstein gravity theory but also electromagnetism, including the

electromagnetic theory of light due to James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1979),

could be derived from the assumption that spacetime is actually a warped

5-dimensional geometric structure. With Einstein's help, Kaluza's 5-d theory

was published in 1921.

The decade of the 1920s was the most revolutionary

decade in physics and astronomy. I will mention only the highlights. In

quantum physics: deBroglie's wave-particle duality; Heisenberg's matrix

mechanics, and the uncertainty principle; Bohr's complementarity principle;

Pauli's exclusion principle; Schroedinger's wave function equation; Dirac's

antimatter equation (which unified quantum theory and Einstein's special

relativity). In astronomy: Eddington's theory of the internal constitution

stars (including the sun); the discovery of galaxies beyond the Milky Way

galaxy; Friedmann & Lemaitre's theory of the expansion of the universe;

Hubble's observations verifying the expansion of the universe.

In the midst of this revolution, Einstein

contributed seminal papers on the statistics of quantum theory and the

stimulated emission of photons from atoms. These papers led to many later

developments including the laser. But Einstein was primarily interested

in what he called "Unified field theory," which meant the unification of

gravity with electromagnetism. Kaluza's 5-dimensional version of such a

unified theory was an amazing achievement, but it had the major flaw that

it could not explain why we don't see the 5th dimension (which is supposed

to be spatial). Another flaw was that it said nothing about the new quantum

mechanics which was exploding throughout the 1920s.

The Swedish physicist Oscar Klein in 1926

spoke to both these questions by publishing his version of the 5-d theory,

in which the 5th dimension is not visible to us because it is an extremely

small compact dimension; in other words, each point of 4-d spacetime is

replaced by a tiny circle whose radius is around 10-33 cm. This is the

Planck length, which is named for Max Planck who defined this size as the

basic unit of size in the quantum world. The Planck length is 20 orders

of magnitude smaller than a proton (10-13 cm): so if the 5th dimension

is. a Planck length circle, it is no wonder we can't walk around in it;

not even a proton could do that!

Klein's Planck-length circle, as a candidate

for the 5th dimension, entailed both Einstein's general relativity (applied

to 5-d spacetime) and quantum theory to provide the smallness of the extra

dimension. As a bonus, the theory provides a geometric explanation for

the quantization of electric charge; that is why every electron carries

the same charge.

This 5-d theory called Kaluza-Klein theory

was forgotten in the world of physics for several decades during which

the frontier of physics became the exploration of the nucleus of the atom,

where two new forces were discovered: the strong and weak nuclear forces.

The strong force holds the nucleus together against the electrical repulsion

of the constituent protons, all carrying an identical positive charge (remember:

like charges repel). The weak force causes the most common type of nuclear

decay - changing one type of atom into another in a kind of 20th century

alchemy. These forces were exciting things to explore, and it was obvious

that any proposed "unified field theory" would be incomplete without taking

them into account. In his last two decades, Einstein (1879-1955) was a

revered grandfather figure, who was widely believed to be out of touch

with the frontiers of physics - persisting in his doubts about the fundamental

nature of quantum mechanics, and his fervent pursuit of the holy-grail

of physics "the unified field theory."

It was quite a surprise to physics that

by the 100th anniversary celebrations of Einstein's birth, a truly unified

theory had arisen: superstring theory. Discovered in 1971 (by Raymond,

Neveu and *Schwarz), it required *10-dimensions of spacetime! Physicists

suddenly began to read the old 5-d Kaluza-Klein theory papers (and translated

them into English). In 1975, Sherk and Schwarz showed that superstring

theory unifies both Einstein's theory of gravity and quantum mechanics,

and also provides for the unification of all the forces: gravity, electromagnetism,

and the strong and weak nuclear forces. During the Einstein celebration-year

1979, John Schwarz teamed up with Michael Green - the black and green team!

- and together (over several years,) they proved that superstring theory

is a self-consistent theory of quantum gravity, which includes General

Relativity and Quantum Mechanics as sub-theories. This was published in

1984 and created a sensation in the world of physics. Many (especially

younger) physicists immediately jumped on this "bandwagon," so that today

unified field theory - the gleam in Einstein's eye - is a vast industry

in physics. This is why physicists take the notion of hyperspace (10 dimensions

of spacetime) seriously.

Of course, the idea of hyperspace goes

way back to Plato (427-347 B.C.), who suggested in his Cave allegory, that

we are like prisoners of the 3-d world, identifying ourselves with our

3-d shadows, rather than the hyper-dimensional creatures we really are.

Plato never used the word hyper-dimensional, but the idea is clearly in

his story of the projection of the prisoner's shadows (a 2-d projection)

on the cave wall. The prisoners because they are so securely chained, come

to identify themselves with their shadows cast by a fire behind them; and

they believe they, as shadows, are interacting with the shadows cast by

people walking behind them. One of the prisoners breaks free of his chains

and escapes to the world outside the cave, where he sees the full 3-d world.

He can now really interact with the other 3-d people and objects. However,

he goes back to try to rescue his former fellow prisoners. They mock him

and challenge him to tell them what he thinks he sees in their shadow world.

Because he has been in the bright sunlight outside the cave, his eyes-

are not as keenly. adjusted to the dark shadow-world in which his fellow

prisoners live. They can make out the details of the shadows better than

he can. This proves to them that he is merely mad.

It is worth considering that the bizarreness

of the Ted Owens story is a modern-day version of Plato's Cave allegory.

Even though Plato had said of his Academy:

"Let no one enter here without geometry," it took many centuries for geometry

to extend to the 4th dimension. It was the 4th dimension as a doorway to

the spiritual realm that inspired this geometric foray. The philosopher

who attempted to geometrize the Platonic realm was Henry More (1614-1687),

an influential colleague of Isaac Newton at Cambridge University. He taught

that the spiritual realm extended into a 4th dimension, which he called

"spissitude." But this sort of thinking caught on only when mathematicians

began exploring the geometry of higher dimensional spaces.

August Moebius (1790-1868) is most famous

for his discovery of the Moebius strip, a surface that has only one side.

But in 1827 he described how a 3-d object (such as a right handed glove)

could be turned into its mirror image (a left-handed glove) by rotating

it through 4-dimensional space. Such a rotation could also be used to tie

or untie a knot (whose ends are connected as in the mathematical definition

of a knot); and link or unlink a chain.

Johann Carl Friedrick Zoellner (1834-1882),

an astronomer at the University of Leipzig (where Moebius taught), tried

to prove that the spiritual realm was 4-dimensional by having mediums such

as Henry Slade link two wooden rings (one of oak and one of alder). Slade

never did this, but succeeded in convincing Zoellner that he could move

things through the 4th dimension by (among other things) tying four trefoil

knots in a loop of string whose ends were sealed together. Zoellner wrote

about these ideas in the book,

*Trancendental Physics, *which made

the notion of the 4th dimension abhorrent among scientists.

Mathematicians, largely unconcerned with

the application of their discoveries, continued to explore geometries well

beyond the 4th dimension. They were interested in the most general case

- any number of dimensions.

Hyperspace as a word meaning a space of

more than three dimensions was coined in the 1890s by mathematicians, who

were exploring the geometries defined by Bernhard Riemann (1826-1866) which

were not only non-Euclidean (with any degree of warping--called "curvature"),

but also were spaces of any number of dimensions. Riemann, himself, even

proposed that curved (non-Euclidean) 3-d space might account for gravity.

He was almost right. Einstein in 1915 showed that gravity could be accounted

for by a curved 4-d spacetime.

Now physics is in the (embarrassing) situation

of having 10-dimensional spacetime forced on it (at least in theory) if

we wish to unify general relativity with quantum theory. The major experimental

test of this theory is the search for supersymmetry partners for all of

the ordinary fundamental particles. Ironically, this seems to be a replay

of Dirac's 1929 unification of quantum theory and special relativity, which

required the introduction of anti-particle partners for all the ordinary

particles. The anti-electron (the positron) was quickly discovered in 1932;

but the next antiparticle, the anti-proton, was not discovered until 1955.

Only then did physicists agree that the anti-matter idea must be true for

all particles.

Since general relativity and quantum theory

are gigantic worlds unto themselves (and hardly on speaking terms with

each other), it is not surprising that in order to unify these two theories

as sub-theories of a larger theory physicists have envisaged many new consequences,

chief among them being the hyperdimensional (10-d) spacetime.

**The Mathematics of Higher
Dimensions**

In order to describe this hyperspacetime

as well as other spaces that must interact with it, some of the most arcane

(and beautiful) discoveries in recent mathematics must be utilized by the

physicists. It has been my contention that the powerful unification of

mathematical categories afforded by the A-D-E Coxeter graphs is the most

appropriate tool to use in the modeling of unified field theory that is,

the truly unified theory afforded by superstrings, and their recent generalization

to membrane theory. An A-D-E Coxeter graph (named for the Canadian mathematician

H.S.M. Coxeter (1907- ) is a set of nodes joined by lines in one of three

patterns:

[Illustration not included]

Thus there are an infinite number of A's

and an infinite number of D's, but only three E's. These graphs, simple

as they seem, are the most powerful tools to explore hyperspace. The number

of nodes in a diagram is the number of dimensions in a kind of space, which

I call a reflection space, and Coxeter calls a kaleidoscope, but which

most mathematicians call "the dual space of a Cartan sub-algebra of a Lie

algebra."

In 1935, Coxeter devised these diagrams

to describe hyperdimensional generalizations of the Platonic solids (tetrahedron,

cube, octahedron, dodecahedron, and icosahedron) and other highly symmetric

geometrical objects, which he called "polytopes." It is reflections in

hyperspace mirrors that transform these polytopes into themselves. But

lower dimensional polytopes are substructures in higher dimensional polytopes,

and the Coxeter graphs, which generate the mirrors for these reflections,

control, by their hierarchical structure, the embedding of lower dimensional

polytopes in the higher dimensional polytopes. This implies also that the

lower dimensional objects are projections of the higher dimensional objects.

Physicists became interested in these graphs

when they discovered that the observable charges (electrical, weak, and

strong) associated with particles - and thus defining the particles - correspond

to the vertices of polytopes described by these Coxeter graphs. Moreover,

in superstring theory, which brings gravity into the unification picture,

it is necessary to embed the polytopes describing the particle charges

(A4 and D5 for exarnple) in the E-type petlytopes. This has everything

to

do

with the 10-dimensionality of spacetime in superstring theory. In fact

in the E8 version of superstring theory, the 8 nodes of the E8 graph correspond

to the 8 vibrational degrees of freedom of the "worldsheet" swept out by

the vibrating superstrings - analogous to the worldline traced out by a

point particle. Thus the 2 dimensions of the worldsheet itself, plus the

8 dimensions of worldsheet vibrations (whose harmonics are particle states),

add up to the 10 dimensions of spacetime.

As readers of my (1993) appendix paper

in *Roots of Consciousness** *know,

I have been partial to E7 as the basic descriptor of the hyperworld. In

this theory, I identify the E7 reflection space (a 7-d complex space) with

universal consciousness. The E7 Lie algebra (whose largest commutative

subalgebra can be identified with the reflection space) corresponds to

a mind at large (both conscious and subconscious). In turn, this E7 Lie

algebra is a 133-dimensional subalgebra of an infinite dimensional algebra,

which is a kind of supermind to the E7 mind-at-large.

Since E7 has been largely neglected by

the superstring theorists, it is gratifying to learn that the recent generalization

of superstring theory to membrane theory makes the E7 theory a kind of

master theory. In membrane theory a string is a 1-d membrane; an ordinary

membrane is a 2-brane; and there are n-dimensional membranes going all

the way up to 9-branes in 10-d spacetime. The great excitement in this

theory is that membrane theory unifies all five competing versions of superstring

theory. Moreover, as a master theory there is an 11-dimensional supergravity

theory with 7 (= 11 - 4) hidden dimensions. These 7 dimensions are identical

to the 7-d Cartan subgroup of** **the E7 Lie group; and thus correspond

exactly to the 7 nodes of the E7 Coxeter graph. So the master theory is

the E7 theory.

By the very nature, however, of the unification

of the competing superstring theories (and by the embedding of the lower-dimensional

polytopes required for unified field theory), it must be that all the A-D-E

graphs are implicit in some vast unification which entails consciousness

in a universal sense. To me the hierarchy of the embedding structures suggests

a hierarchy of realms of consciousness -- or realities, for short.

If we attempt to model the events which

Ted Owens seemed to trigger (drastic weather modifications and UFO sightings)

I believe we must employ models afforded by the A-D-E hierarchy of hyperdimensional

mathematical objects. Weather modification entails the control of catastrophic

structures. It has been shown mathematically that the A-D-E hierarchy classifies

the control parameters for all "simple" catastrophes. It may be necessary

to go beyond the A-D-E hierarchy to a larger hierarchy to describe the

control structures for the non-simple "chaotic" catastrophes. In this case

the three E graphs form the gateways into the higher catastrophes [Arnold,

Gilmore]. Closely related to catastrophes are "caustic" structures. Russian

mathematicians have labeled one of these the "flying saucer" caustic. And

it looks like a flying saucer. As they describe it: "for positive time

the caustic is absent but...for negative time it exists. According to V.M.

Zakalykin this reconstruction, possibly, illustrates the phenomenon of

the disappearance of 'flying saucers'" [p. 176 in Singularities of Differentiable

Maps, Vol II, Arnold et al,1988]

In fact, the model for hyper-reality must

be the vast underlying mathematical object described by the entire A-D-E

series itself. Each category of mathematical object described by these

graphs is merely another window into this underlying object. There are

by now more than twenty such mathematical windows. I will name only those

few whose relevance for physics and consciousness are obvious: reflection

groups.; Lie algebras (and groups); Heisenberg algebras; gravitational

instantons; catastrophe structures; error-correcting codes; analog-to-digital

(and vice-versa) coding; conformal field theories; McKay groups - such

as tetrahedral double (E6), octahedral double (E7), and icosahedral double

(E8) groups.

These latter groups hearken back to Plato's

dialogue the "Timaeus," where the regular (Platonic) solids discovered

by the Pythagoreans are discussed. For this reason, the Russian mathematician

V.I. Arnold, who has most vigorously led the exploration of the A-D-E hierarchy,

calls this study "Platonics."

The three exceptional graphs (E6, E7, and

E8) are the three doorways into an even larger, much more complicated hierarchy

of mathematical objects. It is just possible that these doorways allow

really spooky things to project down into the "ordinary" superstring realms

of the A-D-E world. If so, the strange life of Ted Owens (presumably modelled

in part by the A-D-E hierarchy itself) might provide some insight into

the vast world beyond.

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