Saul-Paul Sirag is a theoretical physicist whose theories encompass the age and size of the universe as well as the number and nature of all subatomic particles.
Brought to you by William James
Despite the fact that the 'new' physics,
a godchild of the Einsteinian revolution has taught us that the Universe
we perceive is a mere shadow of a vastly more unpredictable one, most of
us still view the world in a distinctly materialistic way. A world where
mind and matter exist independently, neatly bordered by a strong and infinite
D. Scott Rogo and Jeffrey Mishlove
(1979: the 100th anniversary of Einstein's
Original manuscript of Earth's Ambassador.
The intelligence raising drug, NEURO,
began to change things a bit after it appeared in 1988. People's fantasies
gradually became more sophisticated and philosophical, and their reality-tunnels
accordingly adapted. With the publication of Sirag's General Field Theory
in 1993, the smarter primates immediately realized what was really occurring
on their planet and throughout the cosmos.
Robert Anton Wilson (1981)
p. 248 of Schroedinger's Cat II: The
Trick Top Hat.
The first quote is from the present, non-fiction
book about Ted Owens, whose purported contacts with Space Intelligences
sound like the wildest science-fiction. The second quote is from a novel,
whose very structure incorporates the many-worlds model of quantum mechanics.
It is an amusing synchronicity that the paper "Consciousness: a Hyperspace
View" (which could indeed be described as Sirag's General Field Theory)
was published in 1993, as a 39-page appendix to the Second Edition of Jeffrey
Mishlove's book Roots of Consciousness,.
A preliminary version of this paper was
presented on September 28, 1987 at the University of California at Berkeley,
in a meeting sponsored by the California Society for Psychical Study. Jeffrey
Mishlove, who was the president that year, persuaded me to give that talk:
"The Cosmology of Consciousness."
Ted Owens, who died in 1987, the year in
which that paper was given, always referred to the Space intelligences
(SIs) as coming from a higher dimensional realm and not from some distant
planet. Whether Ted knew it or not, all during his lifetime (1920-1987),
the world of physics underwent radical changes in its view of reality,
that I will review here. These changes lend support to Owens' claims and
A Brief History of Hyperspace
Albert Einstein in 1915 introduced the
idea that gravity is to be explained as the warping of four-dimensional
(4-d) spacetime. Whatever doubts physicists had - and there were many -
about the reality of the 4-dimensionality of spacetime (as a unified geometrical
whole which could be warped) were erased by the dramatic verification of
Einstein's gravity theory (called the General Theory of Relativity) in
1919, when a group of British astronomers led by Arthur Eddington measured
the bending of starlight grazing the sun during a solar eclipse. That same
year, Theodore Kaluza, a Polish physicist, came up with the idea that not
only the Einstein gravity theory but also electromagnetism, including the
electromagnetic theory of light due to James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1979),
could be derived from the assumption that spacetime is actually a warped
5-dimensional geometric structure. With Einstein's help, Kaluza's 5-d theory
was published in 1921.
The decade of the 1920s was the most revolutionary
decade in physics and astronomy. I will mention only the highlights. In
quantum physics: deBroglie's wave-particle duality; Heisenberg's matrix
mechanics, and the uncertainty principle; Bohr's complementarity principle;
Pauli's exclusion principle; Schroedinger's wave function equation; Dirac's
antimatter equation (which unified quantum theory and Einstein's special
relativity). In astronomy: Eddington's theory of the internal constitution
stars (including the sun); the discovery of galaxies beyond the Milky Way
galaxy; Friedmann & Lemaitre's theory of the expansion of the universe;
Hubble's observations verifying the expansion of the universe.
In the midst of this revolution, Einstein
contributed seminal papers on the statistics of quantum theory and the
stimulated emission of photons from atoms. These papers led to many later
developments including the laser. But Einstein was primarily interested
in what he called "Unified field theory," which meant the unification of
gravity with electromagnetism. Kaluza's 5-dimensional version of such a
unified theory was an amazing achievement, but it had the major flaw that
it could not explain why we don't see the 5th dimension (which is supposed
to be spatial). Another flaw was that it said nothing about the new quantum
mechanics which was exploding throughout the 1920s.
The Swedish physicist Oscar Klein in 1926
spoke to both these questions by publishing his version of the 5-d theory,
in which the 5th dimension is not visible to us because it is an extremely
small compact dimension; in other words, each point of 4-d spacetime is
replaced by a tiny circle whose radius is around 10-33 cm. This is the
Planck length, which is named for Max Planck who defined this size as the
basic unit of size in the quantum world. The Planck length is 20 orders
of magnitude smaller than a proton (10-13 cm): so if the 5th dimension
is. a Planck length circle, it is no wonder we can't walk around in it;
not even a proton could do that!
Klein's Planck-length circle, as a candidate
for the 5th dimension, entailed both Einstein's general relativity (applied
to 5-d spacetime) and quantum theory to provide the smallness of the extra
dimension. As a bonus, the theory provides a geometric explanation for
the quantization of electric charge; that is why every electron carries
the same charge.
This 5-d theory called Kaluza-Klein theory
was forgotten in the world of physics for several decades during which
the frontier of physics became the exploration of the nucleus of the atom,
where two new forces were discovered: the strong and weak nuclear forces.
The strong force holds the nucleus together against the electrical repulsion
of the constituent protons, all carrying an identical positive charge (remember:
like charges repel). The weak force causes the most common type of nuclear
decay - changing one type of atom into another in a kind of 20th century
alchemy. These forces were exciting things to explore, and it was obvious
that any proposed "unified field theory" would be incomplete without taking
them into account. In his last two decades, Einstein (1879-1955) was a
revered grandfather figure, who was widely believed to be out of touch
with the frontiers of physics - persisting in his doubts about the fundamental
nature of quantum mechanics, and his fervent pursuit of the holy-grail
of physics "the unified field theory."
It was quite a surprise to physics that
by the 100th anniversary celebrations of Einstein's birth, a truly unified
theory had arisen: superstring theory. Discovered in 1971 (by Raymond,
Neveu and Schwarz), it required 10-dimensions of spacetime! Physicists
suddenly began to read the old 5-d Kaluza-Klein theory papers (and translated
them into English). In 1975, Sherk and Schwarz showed that superstring
theory unifies both Einstein's theory of gravity and quantum mechanics,
and also provides for the unification of all the forces: gravity, electromagnetism,
and the strong and weak nuclear forces. During the Einstein celebration-year
1979, John Schwarz teamed up with Michael Green - the black and green team!
- and together (over several years,) they proved that superstring theory
is a self-consistent theory of quantum gravity, which includes General
Relativity and Quantum Mechanics as sub-theories. This was published in
1984 and created a sensation in the world of physics. Many (especially
younger) physicists immediately jumped on this "bandwagon," so that today
unified field theory - the gleam in Einstein's eye - is a vast industry
in physics. This is why physicists take the notion of hyperspace (10 dimensions
of spacetime) seriously.
Of course, the idea of hyperspace goes
way back to Plato (427-347 B.C.), who suggested in his Cave allegory, that
we are like prisoners of the 3-d world, identifying ourselves with our
3-d shadows, rather than the hyper-dimensional creatures we really are.
Plato never used the word hyper-dimensional, but the idea is clearly in
his story of the projection of the prisoner's shadows (a 2-d projection)
on the cave wall. The prisoners because they are so securely chained, come
to identify themselves with their shadows cast by a fire behind them; and
they believe they, as shadows, are interacting with the shadows cast by
people walking behind them. One of the prisoners breaks free of his chains
and escapes to the world outside the cave, where he sees the full 3-d world.
He can now really interact with the other 3-d people and objects. However,
he goes back to try to rescue his former fellow prisoners. They mock him
and challenge him to tell them what he thinks he sees in their shadow world.
Because he has been in the bright sunlight outside the cave, his eyes-
are not as keenly. adjusted to the dark shadow-world in which his fellow
prisoners live. They can make out the details of the shadows better than
he can. This proves to them that he is merely mad.
It is worth considering that the bizarreness
of the Ted Owens story is a modern-day version of Plato's Cave allegory.
Even though Plato had said of his Academy:
"Let no one enter here without geometry," it took many centuries for geometry
to extend to the 4th dimension. It was the 4th dimension as a doorway to
the spiritual realm that inspired this geometric foray. The philosopher
who attempted to geometrize the Platonic realm was Henry More (1614-1687),
an influential colleague of Isaac Newton at Cambridge University. He taught
that the spiritual realm extended into a 4th dimension, which he called
"spissitude." But this sort of thinking caught on only when mathematicians
began exploring the geometry of higher dimensional spaces.
August Moebius (1790-1868) is most famous
for his discovery of the Moebius strip, a surface that has only one side.
But in 1827 he described how a 3-d object (such as a right handed glove)
could be turned into its mirror image (a left-handed glove) by rotating
it through 4-dimensional space. Such a rotation could also be used to tie
or untie a knot (whose ends are connected as in the mathematical definition
of a knot); and link or unlink a chain.
Johann Carl Friedrick Zoellner (1834-1882),
an astronomer at the University of Leipzig (where Moebius taught), tried
to prove that the spiritual realm was 4-dimensional by having mediums such
as Henry Slade link two wooden rings (one of oak and one of alder). Slade
never did this, but succeeded in convincing Zoellner that he could move
things through the 4th dimension by (among other things) tying four trefoil
knots in a loop of string whose ends were sealed together. Zoellner wrote
about these ideas in the book,
Trancendental Physics, which made
the notion of the 4th dimension abhorrent among scientists.
Mathematicians, largely unconcerned with
the application of their discoveries, continued to explore geometries well
beyond the 4th dimension. They were interested in the most general case
- any number of dimensions.
Hyperspace as a word meaning a space of
more than three dimensions was coined in the 1890s by mathematicians, who
were exploring the geometries defined by Bernhard Riemann (1826-1866) which
were not only non-Euclidean (with any degree of warping--called "curvature"),
but also were spaces of any number of dimensions. Riemann, himself, even
proposed that curved (non-Euclidean) 3-d space might account for gravity.
He was almost right. Einstein in 1915 showed that gravity could be accounted
for by a curved 4-d spacetime.
Now physics is in the (embarrassing) situation
of having 10-dimensional spacetime forced on it (at least in theory) if
we wish to unify general relativity with quantum theory. The major experimental
test of this theory is the search for supersymmetry partners for all of
the ordinary fundamental particles. Ironically, this seems to be a replay
of Dirac's 1929 unification of quantum theory and special relativity, which
required the introduction of anti-particle partners for all the ordinary
particles. The anti-electron (the positron) was quickly discovered in 1932;
but the next antiparticle, the anti-proton, was not discovered until 1955.
Only then did physicists agree that the anti-matter idea must be true for
Since general relativity and quantum theory
are gigantic worlds unto themselves (and hardly on speaking terms with
each other), it is not surprising that in order to unify these two theories
as sub-theories of a larger theory physicists have envisaged many new consequences,
chief among them being the hyperdimensional (10-d) spacetime.
The Mathematics of Higher
In order to describe this hyperspacetime
as well as other spaces that must interact with it, some of the most arcane
(and beautiful) discoveries in recent mathematics must be utilized by the
physicists. It has been my contention that the powerful unification of
mathematical categories afforded by the A-D-E Coxeter graphs is the most
appropriate tool to use in the modeling of unified field theory that is,
the truly unified theory afforded by superstrings, and their recent generalization
to membrane theory. An A-D-E Coxeter graph (named for the Canadian mathematician
H.S.M. Coxeter (1907- ) is a set of nodes joined by lines in one of three
[Illustration not included]
Thus there are an infinite number of A's
and an infinite number of D's, but only three E's. These graphs, simple
as they seem, are the most powerful tools to explore hyperspace. The number
of nodes in a diagram is the number of dimensions in a kind of space, which
I call a reflection space, and Coxeter calls a kaleidoscope, but which
most mathematicians call "the dual space of a Cartan sub-algebra of a Lie
In 1935, Coxeter devised these diagrams
to describe hyperdimensional generalizations of the Platonic solids (tetrahedron,
cube, octahedron, dodecahedron, and icosahedron) and other highly symmetric
geometrical objects, which he called "polytopes." It is reflections in
hyperspace mirrors that transform these polytopes into themselves. But
lower dimensional polytopes are substructures in higher dimensional polytopes,
and the Coxeter graphs, which generate the mirrors for these reflections,
control, by their hierarchical structure, the embedding of lower dimensional
polytopes in the higher dimensional polytopes. This implies also that the
lower dimensional objects are projections of the higher dimensional objects.
Physicists became interested in these graphs
when they discovered that the observable charges (electrical, weak, and
strong) associated with particles - and thus defining the particles - correspond
to the vertices of polytopes described by these Coxeter graphs. Moreover,
in superstring theory, which brings gravity into the unification picture,
it is necessary to embed the polytopes describing the particle charges
(A4 and D5 for exarnple) in the E-type petlytopes. This has everything
with the 10-dimensionality of spacetime in superstring theory. In fact
in the E8 version of superstring theory, the 8 nodes of the E8 graph correspond
to the 8 vibrational degrees of freedom of the "worldsheet" swept out by
the vibrating superstrings - analogous to the worldline traced out by a
point particle. Thus the 2 dimensions of the worldsheet itself, plus the
8 dimensions of worldsheet vibrations (whose harmonics are particle states),
add up to the 10 dimensions of spacetime.
As readers of my (1993) appendix paper
in Roots of Consciousness know,
I have been partial to E7 as the basic descriptor of the hyperworld. In
this theory, I identify the E7 reflection space (a 7-d complex space) with
universal consciousness. The E7 Lie algebra (whose largest commutative
subalgebra can be identified with the reflection space) corresponds to
a mind at large (both conscious and subconscious). In turn, this E7 Lie
algebra is a 133-dimensional subalgebra of an infinite dimensional algebra,
which is a kind of supermind to the E7 mind-at-large.
Since E7 has been largely neglected by
the superstring theorists, it is gratifying to learn that the recent generalization
of superstring theory to membrane theory makes the E7 theory a kind of
master theory. In membrane theory a string is a 1-d membrane; an ordinary
membrane is a 2-brane; and there are n-dimensional membranes going all
the way up to 9-branes in 10-d spacetime. The great excitement in this
theory is that membrane theory unifies all five competing versions of superstring
theory. Moreover, as a master theory there is an 11-dimensional supergravity
theory with 7 (= 11 - 4) hidden dimensions. These 7 dimensions are identical
to the 7-d Cartan subgroup of the E7 Lie group; and thus correspond
exactly to the 7 nodes of the E7 Coxeter graph. So the master theory is
the E7 theory.
By the very nature, however, of the unification
of the competing superstring theories (and by the embedding of the lower-dimensional
polytopes required for unified field theory), it must be that all the A-D-E
graphs are implicit in some vast unification which entails consciousness
in a universal sense. To me the hierarchy of the embedding structures suggests
a hierarchy of realms of consciousness -- or realities, for short.
If we attempt to model the events which
Ted Owens seemed to trigger (drastic weather modifications and UFO sightings)
I believe we must employ models afforded by the A-D-E hierarchy of hyperdimensional
mathematical objects. Weather modification entails the control of catastrophic
structures. It has been shown mathematically that the A-D-E hierarchy classifies
the control parameters for all "simple" catastrophes. It may be necessary
to go beyond the A-D-E hierarchy to a larger hierarchy to describe the
control structures for the non-simple "chaotic" catastrophes. In this case
the three E graphs form the gateways into the higher catastrophes [Arnold,
Gilmore]. Closely related to catastrophes are "caustic" structures. Russian
mathematicians have labeled one of these the "flying saucer" caustic. And
it looks like a flying saucer. As they describe it: "for positive time
the caustic is absent but...for negative time it exists. According to V.M.
Zakalykin this reconstruction, possibly, illustrates the phenomenon of
the disappearance of 'flying saucers'" [p. 176 in Singularities of Differentiable
Maps, Vol II, Arnold et al,1988]
In fact, the model for hyper-reality must
be the vast underlying mathematical object described by the entire A-D-E
series itself. Each category of mathematical object described by these
graphs is merely another window into this underlying object. There are
by now more than twenty such mathematical windows. I will name only those
few whose relevance for physics and consciousness are obvious: reflection
groups.; Lie algebras (and groups); Heisenberg algebras; gravitational
instantons; catastrophe structures; error-correcting codes; analog-to-digital
(and vice-versa) coding; conformal field theories; McKay groups - such
as tetrahedral double (E6), octahedral double (E7), and icosahedral double
These latter groups hearken back to Plato's
dialogue the "Timaeus," where the regular (Platonic) solids discovered
by the Pythagoreans are discussed. For this reason, the Russian mathematician
V.I. Arnold, who has most vigorously led the exploration of the A-D-E hierarchy,
calls this study "Platonics."
The three exceptional graphs (E6, E7, and
E8) are the three doorways into an even larger, much more complicated hierarchy
of mathematical objects. It is just possible that these doorways allow
really spooky things to project down into the "ordinary" superstring realms
of the A-D-E world. If so, the strange life of Ted Owens (presumably modelled
in part by the A-D-E hierarchy itself) might provide some insight into
the vast world beyond.
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