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Deities & Heros >> Egyptian
ancient egyptian god, fertility god, god of fertility, cult center


Author: Mirjam

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Sokar, probably an earth and fertility god in early times. Later he developed into a mortuary deity, his cult center being near the necropolis of Mennefer (Memphis).

He was depicted as a falcon headed human, showing his association to the king, and in the Pyramid Text he was mentioned in relation to Osiris.

In the Late period he became merged with Ptah and Osiris and known as Ptah-Sokar-Osiris.

Main center of worship:

Mennefer/Memphis, 1st N, Lower Egypt.

Festivals: (date unknown)

In earlier times a stone was dragged across fields followed by people wearing onion garlands, probably a ritual for enhancing cultivation. The stone might have been his cultic image.

Correction/Addendum to this article:

"I would just like to point out an error on your site refering to the Ancient
Egyptian God Sokar. In your site, you say he was originally a god of fertility and later bacame a funery god. This is not actually true. Temples dedicated to Sokar have been found at Giza and pre-date that found of Osiris. Sokar was THE original god of death who ruled the underworld and was greatly feared. After him came Anubis, and after Anubis Osiris came to rule the underworld.

For more information:

Also, the following is an extract from Egyptian Mythology concerning Sokar:

'The fith hour-devision is the domain of the dreaded Sokar, the underworld
god, with three human heads, a serpent's body, and mighty wings between which
appears his hawk form. His abode is in a dark secret place which is gaurded
by fierce sphinxes. Nigh to him is the Drowning Pool, watched over by five
gods with bodies like to men and animals' heads. Strange and mysterious forms
hover nigh, and in the pool are genii in torture, their heads aflame with
everlasting fire.'

Sokar was not anything other than a funery god who ruled the underworld and
the memphis necropolis. He was possibly the most ancient of all Egyptian gods
and may have been worshipped before Ra. He was certainly worshiped before
Osiris, and the only connection he had with Osiris was that Osiris took the
same job as him after Anubis and later made use of his name."

Correction submitted by