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Obligate Mutualism

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Beyond the Black Queen Hypothesis
More than the trait loss itself (Ellers et al., 2012), we believe that the 'point of no return' in the shift from a facultative interaction to an obligatory dependency is the loss of gene(s) underlying the loss of function.
What does it mean to be human in the age of technology?
When I think about the future of human-machine interactions, two entwined anxieties come to mind. First, there is the tension between individual and collective existence.
The microenvironment of injured murine gut elicits a local pro-restitutive
A simple coculture system shows mutualism between anaerobic faecalibacteria
Most gut bacteria are obligate anaerobes and are important for human health. However, little mechanistic insight is available on the health benefits of specific anaerobic gut bacteria.
Proteomic analysis of symbiotic proteins of Glomus mosseae and Amorpha fruticosa
Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), representing the most widely distributed mutualistic root symbiosis in nature, are the result of long-term evolution between plant and soil fungi.

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